清真的電擊:關於動物福利與伊斯蘭屠宰的一段道德技術史

Author Info
趙恩潔
國立中山大學社會學系助理教授
       本文探討當代國際「清真」(halal)肉品是如何由眾多技術物中介的道德論述、科學實驗、人與動物等行動者之共構(co-production)才誕生,而非僅僅是伊斯蘭教義延伸至實驗室與屠宰場的結果。我所關注的例子是「清真電擊」(halal stunning)的建立。在此案例中,重劃清真邊界的過程涉及「人道屠宰」(humane slaughter)的辯論、「可逆轉式電擊」(reversible stunning)的建構、以及穆斯林法學者的宗教釋令(fatwa)與科學家的合作。為突顯此議題的重要性,本文先從全球宗教屠宰爭議談起,簡述特定動物福利團體、國際媒體與特定國家將「動物權」與「宗教自由權」對立,以及將「科學」與「宗教」對立的現象,並指出這些爭議的盲點在於其低估了宗教與科學合作的密切程度。透過「共構」(Jasanoff, 2004) 與「被啟動的行動者」(Law and Mol, 2008) 觀點,我描繪了一種伊斯蘭推動科學實踐,而科技也重構清真內涵的現象。這是一段「清真電擊」如何在串連起科學實驗、人道屠宰、國際貿易、宗教釋令與動物身體之後,最終誕生於紐西蘭,並經由推廣而成為穆斯林佔多數的國家(Muslim-majority countries)所接受之屠宰技術的歷史,也是一段宗教與科學相互滲透的道德技術史。對此現象的了解,將有助於理解當代重要的食品倫理議題,並拓寬宗教的科技與社會研究之視域。
 
Halal Stunning: A techno-moral history of animal welfare and Islamic religious slaughter
 
  This essay explores the ways in which halal meat is produced through a network of techno-moral discourses, scientific experiments, and non-human actors, rather than as the result of an easy introduction of Islamic doctrines into labs and slaughter houses. The case examined here is the invention of “halal stunning.” The boundaries of halalness had to be redrawn, which involved debates around “humane slaughter,” the construction of “reversible stunning,” as well as cooperation between religious scholars and scientists. This paper starts with the recent global controversy over religious slaughter, describing the ways in which specific animal welfare groups, media, politicians, and governments have come to construct a false opposition between “animal rights” and “freedom of religion,” and between science and religion. Such a perspective, I argue, underestimates the extent to which religion and science are compatible and ignores the fact that they have long closely worked together. Through the idea of “co-production” (Jasanoff, 2004) and “the enacted actors” (Law and Mol, 2008), I describe a phenomenon in which Islamic decrees promote scientific practices, and technologies also reconstitute the content of what is considered halal. In sum, this article narrates the techno-moral history of “halal stunning,” which, as the procedure came to be systematically materialized in New Zealand and successfully accepted by Muslim-majority countries, brought together scientific experiments, humane slaughter, international trade, religious law, and animals. This case study helps deepen our understanding of the complexity of food ethics in the contemporary world, and broadens our horizonof religion within the field of STS.
Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第26期,頁7-54,2018年04月出版