棄置的圍網和推不動的紙盤:產銷結構如何形塑技術物政治性

Author Info
簡妤儒
台灣大學社會系助理教授
       看似符合適當科技精神的技術物為什麼會失敗?本文探討農委會自2004 年起在養雞場試圖推動的兩項防範禽流感的技術物—防鳥圍網和盛裝雞蛋的紙盤—為何在產銷現場不斷遭遇反彈。本研究透過考察雞農養殖實作及相應市場產銷結構,指出技術物的成功或失敗,不僅涉及物與人的互動,以及社會群體的角力,也受到法律中物的所有權規範、產業上下游產銷鏈安排,以及市場中價格決定機制等結構因素的影響。在養雞業所面對的防疫挑戰中,以低價、大量生產為基礎的產業運作,深刻形塑了雞農、盤商,以及消費者的認知和行動,讓相關行動者多傾向捍衛開放性禽場和塑膠蛋箱等舊技術物,使得圍網和紙蛋盤在防疫實作中逐漸退場或遲遲難以登場。透過分析防鳥圍網和紙盤這兩樣簡易技術物推動的困境,本研究指出行動者網絡和社會世界理論解釋力的不足,並提出應正視技術物和社會互動過程中,制度或產業結構裡的權力關係對行動者認知和能動性的限制。
 
Why Did the Animal-proof Netting and Paper Egg Tray Policies Fail? : The Social and Market Construction of Artifacts’ Politics
 
  To prevent avian flu outbreaks, the Taiwanese government has introduced two artifacts to poultry farmers to enhance farm biosecurity since 2004: bird-proof netting and paper egg trays. Although these two artifacts seem like appropriate technologies suitable for local small-scale production, most farmers and wholesalers resisted adopting them. This article explains these stakeholders’ resistance by investigating how market structures shape their risk perceptions and willingness to change. Data were collected by analyzing policy documents, examining news reports, and interviewing government officials, veterinary experts, and poultry farmers. I argue that stakeholders’ rationality and practices are embedded in conventional mass production markets. Not only does the current division of labor in poultry and egg markets encourage actors to externalize the cost of disease prevention, it also shapes artifacts’ political qualities. Conventional artifacts, such as unenclosed chicken coops and plastic egg trays, are not inherently risky. It is stakeholders’ attempts to reduce personal inputs and maximize short-term returns that have contributed to disease transmission via these artifacts. By showing how the market shapes actors’ rationality and the characteristics of things, this study intends to overcome the explanatory limitations of actor network theory (ANT) and social worlds theory, both of which often neglect power relations in specific social contexts. To prevent zoonotic diseases, therefore, not only artifacts but also market structures should be taken into account.
Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》第25 期,頁119-170,2017 年10月出版。