大型科技系統理論之評析:兼論探索移入台灣之系統的幾個構想

Author Info
張國暉
國立台灣大學國家發展研究所、國立台灣大學風險社會與政策研究中心

       多個學術領域均認有必要對大型科技系統給予更多關注,即便目前已有不少相關案例探索、概念建構及理論創造的發展。Thomas P. Hughes (1923-2014) 藉1970年代以來科技史新趨勢,並透過若干歐美電力系統案例研究,提出一般性的大型科技系統理論。然而,Hughes及延伸研究多以歐美國家的科技系統為主,迄今少有非歐美國家經驗,更欠缺由此發展相關概念與之對話。台灣目前已建構不少現代大型科技系統,許多係從國外移入,不只系統的建構歷程與歐美經驗有異,在地脈絡更有相當不同特質。特別因國家脈絡及角色的差異,使台灣的系統與社會之互動關係出現諸多不同現象。本文旨在評析Hughes的大型科技系統理論在STS相關領域中的發展脈絡、關鍵貢獻及後續啟發,先透過分析其與社會建構論的承繼及聯繫關係、比較彼此異同,再探索其可對研究台灣大型科技系統的新議題啟發,並藉此提供幾個考量本土脈絡後的研究構想。

A Review of the Theory of Large Technological Systems: Some Thoughts about How to Study the Systems Transferred from the West to Taiwan

      One important way a variety of disciplines have explored the question of how society, city, the state or globalization is possible has been to investigate how large technical/technological systems (LTS) are built in these arenas. Drawing insights from academic development in the field of history of technology, Thomas P. Hughes (1923-2014) established LTS theory by examining the interaction of technology and society through the case studies of how electric grids were created in Chicago, Berlin and London. His study of the developmental process of LTS construction is a classic work in sociology of technology and STS. Hughes’s research has inspired further research about how LTS produces cultural and political impacts. However, Hughes’LTS theory has not been applied to the non-Western world and its local contexts, social institutions, political economy, and so on. New theoretical concepts could be generated with LTS theory grounded in cases from the non-Western world. Based on these interests, this essay attempts to offer some thoughts on how to study the transferred LTS from the West to Taiwan and what this might contribute to current research in LTS studies in general.

Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第24期,頁91-144,2017年04月出版