土地、社群、信仰:解析俗民環境論述

Author Info
呂欣怡
國立台灣大學人類系副教授
  1980年代末期發生的高雄後勁反五輕運動,不只成為台灣環境運動史的經典個案,也牽動了在地民眾將近30年的共同生命經驗。本研究選取出生於1950年代,長期居住後勁的15位居民進行生命史訪談,探討他們如何理解工業污染、環境運動、以及與之相關的社會生態變化。廿多年前的反污染抗爭開啟了新的政治參與空間,也已成為社區的認同象徵,而義氣、公平、業報等具備地域特殊性的價值觀,則與普世性的環境主義扣連,成為環境感知的基礎。本文主張,俗民環境論述涵蓋三個層面:污染知識、人際倫理、以及宇宙觀,這套鑲嵌於地方秩序的環境構框,並不局限常民的環境關懷尺度,而是在廿多年的抗爭實作中,融合不同層次的議題,進而發展為針對台灣整體生活環境的反省。
 
Land, Community, and Faith: An Analytical Model of Folk Environmental Discourse
 
 
  This research focuses on Houjin, Kaohsiung, an urban marginal community best known for its anti-pollution and anti-CPC movements of the 1980s and the 2000s.  Drawing on life-story interviews with 15 Houjin residents who were born in the 1950s, I examine the ways residents living in proximity to an industrial complex conceptualize industrial pollution, environmental movement, and associated socio-ecological transformations.  The historic anti-pollution movement opened up new political space for citizen participation; it also has become the symbol of community identity.  Moreover, particularistic ethics of fraternity, equity, and karma are articulated with universalist ethics of environmentalism, and form the basis of environmental perception.  In analyzing the environmental discourse of ordinary people, I argue that the folk model of environmentalism consists of three dimensions—local knowledge about land and pollution, interpersonal ethics, and cosmology.  In dialogue with scholarly literature concerning place-based movement and community studies, this research discusses how a particularistic and community-based environmentalism was open to different levels of “others” through continuous environmental actions, and developed into a grassroots reflection over the quality of life for an entire country. 
Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第22期,頁06-108,2016年04月出版