如何停止憂慮並愛上演化思維:從孔恩的「演化轉向」到「一般化達爾文主義」

Author Info
萬毓澤
國立中山大學社會系副教授
本文從孔恩的「演化轉向」切入,討論演化理論與社會科學研究的關係。本文透過討論「類比」與「存有論」(一般化)兩種不同的研究策略,勾勒出某種版本的「一般化達爾文主義」,亦即一種以變異、遺傳(複製)、選擇為核心的後設理論架構,有助於啟發、引導、架構、組織研究者提出的解釋。其次,本文試圖論證「能動性」和拉馬克主義(「斯賓賽式選擇」)都能夠在「一般化達爾文主義」的架構內得到安置。最後,本文提出了幾項認識論的立場,以與「生物學帝國主義」做清楚的區隔。
 
How to Stop Worrying and Love the Evolutionary Thinking: From Thomas Kuhn’s “Evolutionary Turn” to “Generalized Darwinism”
 
Taking Thomas Kuhn’s “evolutionary turn” as a starting point, this article addresses the relationship between evolutionary theories and social scientific research. By way of a comparison of two research strategies — analogy and generalization (ontology) — It outlines the tenets of “generalized Darwinism,” a meta-theoretical framework that stimulates, guides, and organizes empirical inquiry. Variation, inheritance, and selection are its core principles. This article also argues that human agency and Lamarckism (“Spencerian selection”) are fully compatible with such a framework. Finally, it advances a number of epistemological stances that help set itself apart from the infamous “biological imperialism.”
Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第20期,頁181-222,2015年4月出版