解剖學知識傳授與實作的初步觀察: 以1900-1980年代的臺灣醫學教育現場 為分析對象

Author Info
張淑卿
長庚大學人文及社會醫學科副教授

大體解剖課程是醫學課程中學分數最多的一門課。醫學生認為這門課是真正接觸醫學領域的開端,能通過此門課者彷彿獲得進入白色巨塔的「入場券」,對於醫學生在專業知識技能的養成以及身分角色的認同,具有重大的形塑力量。臺灣醫學教育中解剖學教育始於日治時期,1950年代之後受到美式醫學的影響,解剖課程的授課方式、教學輔助器材逐漸異於日治時期。授課材料除了傳統的板書以及教師親自繪製的解剖圖外,幻燈片與圖譜成為學習該門知識的介面。學生不僅要牢記拉丁文專有名詞,還要運用雙手在老師的帶領下,學習解剖大體的刀法。因此,在學習解剖學的過程中充分顯示「師徒制」與「默會知識」的重要。

本文的分析材料以文獻資料為主,訪談為輔,並從臺灣醫學教育中的解剖學知識傳授與實作切入,首先指出該知識與實作是如何傳承;其次指出同儕與師生之間如何學習與交流,以及醫學生對於屍體的認知;進而討論解剖學知識如何影響醫學生的身分認同與型塑專屬個人解剖學知識的意義。

 

Knowledge Transfer and Practice: The Case of Anatomy in Taiwanese Medical Schools, 1900-1980

Medical students perceive anatomy course as the foundation to medical learning. Completing this subject is an indication of gaining entrance to medical school, and thus exerts a profound influence on the cultivation of professional knowledge, specialized skills, and identity. In Taiwan, anatomy education, which is compulsory in medical education, was established during the Japanese colonial period. After 1950, anatomy was affected by U.S. medicine, teaching styles and aidsof which have gradually deviated from those adopted during the Japanese colonial period. Students were required to memorize Latin terminology and conduct practical exercises on dissecting techniques under teacher supervision. Thus, the essence of the mentoring system and tacit knowledge is exhibited in the process of learning anatomy.

From the perspective of anatomical knowledge transfer and practice in Taiwanese medical education, this study investigates how anatomical knowledge and practice was disseminated through interactions and discussions among students and between professors and students, which consequently generatedanatomical knowledge among Taiwanese medical students and exerted effects on their cognition of the human body.  

Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第20期,頁75-128,2015年04月出版