永久屋前搭涼棚:災後家屋重建的建築設計與社會改造

Author Info
吳嘉苓
國立台灣大學社會系教授

本文透過台東金峰鄉嘉蘭村的莫拉克災後重建,探討建築家屋的設計、興建與使用過程,如何協商改造原住民社會。本文提出兩種分析主張,以凸顯家屋重建的多樣行動:擴展「設計者」的界定,把提出房舍藍圖的人都視為「設計者」,而非侷限於領有證照的「建築師」;廣納在地居民的異質參與,包括在不同的家屋重建社會技術網絡中,居民涉及的設計、興建與使用。本文的研究方法包括參與觀察、深度訪談、以及檔案資料。本文呈現嘉蘭村歷經了四種災後家屋重建的社會技術網絡。(一)、建築師謝英俊設計的中繼屋: 輕鋼架網絡;(二)、部落耆老發起的部落廣場:石板屋網絡; (三)、援建單位執行的永久屋:鋼筋水泥網絡; (四)、村民搭建的涼棚:taəta 網絡。本文發現,當地村民作為設計師時,比證照建築師更能把原住民文化當作設計主軸,而居民在實際使用上,卻最為偏好鋼筋水泥屋。居民持續在這雙重的偏好協商,陸續改寫了中繼屋、石板屋與永久屋的設計藍圖,最後以「永久屋前搭涼棚」的附加形式加以整合。

 

 

Erecting taətain front of Permanent House: Architectural Design and Social Reform for the Post-Disaster Reconstruction

This paper analyzes Chia-Lan village’s housing reconstruction after Typhoon Marok to examine how designers and users provide different social reform blueprints for the aboriginal society. I propose two analytical strategies: (1) to incorporate all kinds of blueprints-producing “designers”, rather than limit to the licensed “professional architects,” in order to reveal the diversity of housing design activities; (2) to follow local villagers’ participation in the stages of design, construction and use in different housing-building networks so that we can fully evaluate their cultural value yielding and material reorganization. The data includes participant observation, in-depth interviews and archival data. I found four reconstruction projects in the village. (1) Architect Hsieh Ying-chun’s transitional houses: the lightweight steel construction; (2) The tribal leader-initiated tribe square: traditional stone slab houses; (3) NGO-built permanent houses: reinforced concrete; (4) Residents-designed traditional pergola: taeta. I argue that when local residents got involved with design, they tended to incorporate the aboriginal culture into the blueprint more than the licensed architects. However, villagers still preferred the mainstream reinforced concrete building as their houses. The hybrid preferences of indigenous ethnical culture and modern housing materials led them to rewrite the designers’ scripts for transitional houses, stone slab houses and permanent houses. Future housing design should integrate, rather than just add, indigenous building culture with modern housing design.

Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第20期,頁?-?,2015年04月出版