定位與多重越界:回首重看STS與科哲

Author Info
傅大為
Daiwie Fu

中文摘要

       David Bloor近來接受訪談,認為「科學哲學」是人文社會領域中抗拒STS最頑固的一個學科。Joseph Rouse最近也發表論文,認為科學哲學與STS過去的關係雖然不好,但未來卻大有可為,值得開闢交易特區(trading zone)來交流。陳瑞麟則認為,過去許多人都誤解了二者的關係,STS本身的理論發展與分化過程,其實哲學是不可或缺的。另外我們知道,十多年前的「科學戰爭」使得STS忙著處理她與科學,乃至科哲的危機關係。雖然在東亞或台灣,科學戰爭的爭議並沒有如此嚴重,但隨著STS的成長,她與科哲的關係,對一個源自科學哲學的STS人──筆者而言,仍感到有許多問題需要研究與發言。本文的書寫策略,除了重新思考STS、科哲二者的定位,還有她們與當代科技的關係之外,筆者使用兩個重要的「越界」例子來思考STS與科哲的關係。一個是技術哲學家Langdon Winner如何批評並且使用STS,另一個則是SSK的領航者David Bloor如何策略性的使用(科學)哲學。本文所欲呈現STS與科哲的關係,不像一般所說的,如雙方合作或共構、交流或溝通、共創理想未來等「跨領域外交」上的常見概念,而要指出另外一種比較單方面的,但也許更具穿透與反省效果的「越界」策略。這可以是單方面地來批評、挪用與徵召STS的策略(如Winner),或者反之(如Bloor),是對科哲進行單方面的分類轉換(如重新界定誰是哲學界中的社會學家)與論點轉換(如哪些科哲其實蘊涵豐富的社會學靈光),從而達成Winner的技術哲學或Bloor的SSK在研究發展上的成果,以及滋生更多跨領域行動中的好策略與好分析。

Positioning and multiple boundary-crossings:A Reconsideration of STS and Philosophy of Science

Abstract

      This paper reconsiders the relationship between STS and philosophy of science. First it tries to understand the relationship by comparing their respective relationships to science. If, as joke has it, philosophy of science to science is just like meteorology to meteors, then what is STS to science like? It turns out that their respective relationships to science are much more complicated and sophisticated. Secondly, instead of going for constructing a safe and diplomatic "trading zone" for exchanging ideas between STS and philosophy of science, this paper suggest some more radical and perhaps more fruitful strategies, whose lessons are to come from two case studies. One is about how a philosopher of technology (Langdon Winner) independently criticizes and appropriates STS, and the other is about how a SSK scholar (David Bloor) skillfully criticizes and appropriates philosophy of science/mathematics. This paper ends with some further dialogue with a Taiwanese philosopher of science (Chen Ruey-Lin) about why philosophy of science is not a necessary condition for the conceptual developments of STS, but sometimes it can do more than simply a necessary condition.
Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第16期,頁49-102,2013年04月出版