工程實驗室的陽剛化及穩定機制

Author Info
韓采燕
美國羅格斯大學(新伯朗士威分校)社會學系博士生

中文摘要

科技專業領域中懸殊的性別比例與權力關係是女性主義研究的焦點,本研究進入培育工程師的主要場域:高等教育工程實驗室中,透過在工程實驗室的田野參與觀察與訪談,試圖打開工程實驗室中的性別黑箱,理解工程實驗室如何成為陽剛化的場域?又是如何穩定化?

本研究發現,工程實驗室透過技術物質網絡、訓練實作以及互動模式而被經驗為陽剛化的場域,標準化的陽剛工程師透過物質、論述與實作呈現,研究生必須在實驗室中打造人與物質構成的技術網絡,展現陽剛氣質,才能成為實驗室的主流,當多數男性在其中優游自得並掌握資源的同時,少數男性與女性被邊緣化逐漸成為無聲的圈外人。

工程實驗室透過兩種霸權陽剛的權力運作機制穩定實驗室的陽剛化:一方面透過中心集權的垂直權力網絡維持陽剛化,使多數男性在其中取得資源並優游自得,另一方面透過分散式的凝視維持霸權陽剛化科技人樣態,達成對於實驗室中其他樣態的男性與女性的邊緣化。垂直的權力網絡是台灣工程實驗室的特徵,由於台灣工程實驗室多呈現金字塔型的分工(老師—博士生—碩士生),隨之而生階級分明的權力結構,在這種階層化的權力結構下,上位者的陽剛化訓練與實踐穩固了實驗室的陽剛化。而分散式的水平凝視隱形權力網絡,則展現在工程實驗室每日生活中以多數男性為主體的「虧」互動文化,以及對於異性戀情慾的再確認,透過這些實作持續穩固霸權陽剛的性別權力階序。

Abstract

The unbalanced gender ratio and power relationship in science and engineering professionals are important issues for feminist studies. This study is a preliminary attempt to explore the gender black box in engineering higher education. I examine the daily practice and trainings in an engineering laboratory and analyze how the engineering laboratory been constructed as masculine and how does it stabilize?

I argue, the masculine laboratory has emerged through the discourse of hegemonic masculinity, mediation of objects, and teasing interaction. The ideal engineer is characterized by hegemonic masculinity, and is configured by objects, symbols, and discourse. Graduate students need to construct a human-material technology network to perform hegemonic masculinity and to be mainstream engineers. In this process, most men acquire resources while some men and most women become marginalized.

Further, masculine engineering laboratories are produced and stabilized by two power mechanisms: the centralized vertical power network and the distributed horizontal gaze power network, which enable most men to acquire resources and contentment, while most women and non-mainstream men are marginalized. The centralized vertical power network is embedded in the pyramid hierarchy of engineering laboratories in Taiwan higher education. Under this hierarchical power relationship, the masculine training and the requirement of teachers produce and stabilize masculine engineering laboratory. Distributed horizontal gaze power network emerges from male-subjective teasing and heterosexuality reconfirmation in daily interactions. This practice stabilizes the gendered power hierarchy of hegemonic masculinity.

Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第14期,2012年4月出版