山不轉路轉:公民社會與台灣步道工程技術的轉型

Author Info
徐銘謙
林宗弘
台灣大學國家發展研究所
中央研究院社會學研究所

中文摘要

受科學、技術與社會研究((Science, Technology and Society, 簡稱STS) )的啟發,本文以台灣的登山步道為例,來研究國家與公民社會關係,以及專業技術社群與使用社群之間的關係,如何影響步道技術模式變遷的過程。與台灣其他的公共投資類似,1990年代以前觀光或登山步道工程通常是由國家官僚體制發包給營造商的標案,其技術準則是被景觀規劃或園林設計專業者所決定。然而,自2002年起,台灣登山社團與環保團體反對登山步道工程的抗議此起彼落,挑戰政府由上而下制訂步道施工標準與決定工程發包的舊有步道技術模式,並提出公民參與步道規劃的訴求。在社會運動的壓力下,國家步道工程主管單位林務局及各國家公園管理處,逐漸將登山社團的抗爭者、古道研究者以及步道志工模式的推動者納入步道規劃決策與維護體系中,嘗試學習「生態工法」減少步道土木工程,並引進民間社團參與、用人力進行步道日常維護的新技術模式。結果,這個公民社會改變登山步道施工技術的故事,對台灣其他希望參與公共工程規劃與技術轉型的社會運動提供了寶貴的經驗。

 

Abstract

Inspired by the Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, this article examines how the state-society relationship and relationship among engineering-hiking communities shaped the transformation of technological paradigm of mountain trails in Taiwan. Before 2002, the authority of design and construction of mountain trails is controlled by the state technocrats and landscape architecture professionals. Under the “national landscape model”, the trail is taken as the infrastructure of tourist industry and its design is regarded as the symbol of nationalist identity. Until 2002, the protests of hiking associations changed the state-society relationship and forced the engineering communities to develop a more sustainable alternative of trail construction and conservation. The alternative model, we called it “civil participation model,” introduced the ideas from Ecological Engineering and the volunteers from hiking clubs and trail researchers for design and conservation of mountain trails. The case studies of civil participation on the changes of trails’ building illustrated the impact of social movement on the shift of technological paradigm in Taiwan.

Citation: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第13期,2011年10月出版