十九世紀福爾摩沙醫學教育溯源:打狗慕德醫院及其附設醫學校

作者資訊
呂佩穎
賴淑芳
高雄醫學大學醫學系教授
國立中山大學外國語文學系教授
       始於19 世紀的傳教醫療,除加速早期西方醫學東進,並更驅動了西方醫學教育的全球移動。此大時代背景驅使大英帝國醫師外移,其中有一群蘇格蘭醫師傳教士含馬雅各等人也在1860 年代隨通商而來到打狗(今高雄),就此為福爾摩沙展開了東西方醫學的接觸區,在打狗港口邊悄然的掀開了台灣醫學教育的序幕。本文將藉由研究史料,如英國皇家外科學會、衛爾康圖書館、英國國家文獻館、格拉斯哥大學文獻館等收藏的手稿本、及其他台灣相關文本資料,試圖探究這所位於打狗,可謂是台灣第一所醫學校的慕德醫院及其附設醫學校之時代背景、演進、地理位置、興榮與影響,同時爬梳並勘正目前文獻上的訛誤。從這醫學教育計劃,課程安排之嚴謹度,到其承受異地社會、文化語言的挑戰與衝擊,處處可見蘇格蘭醫學教育的影響。本文除深入討論這個醫學教育計畫之內涵,並比較其與當時蘇格蘭本土醫學教育之異同外,並映照彼時此醫學教育與當時大時代環境數個值得研究的議題。
 
Western Medical Education in Formosa in the 19th Century: David Manson Memorial Hospital and its Medical Education Scheme
 
  The rise of missionary medicine in the 19th century promoted the advance of Western medicine to the East as well as the global movement of Western medical education. In the 1860s, following the port opening for trade, a group of Scottish physician/missionaries, beginning with James L. Maxwell, arrived in Takow (now Kaohsiung), Formosa. They opened up a medical contact zone for the East and West, and also established the prelude to Taiwan's western medical education. The David Manson Memorial Hospital was founded in 1878 at Takow port and its medical education scheme, considered the first western medical education program, started in 1884. This paper used the first-hand manuscripts and archives of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Wellcome Library, the National Archives, the University of Glasgow Archive, and other related historical materials to attempt to recover some historical facts about the hospital and its Medical Education Scheme. This article also explores the contemporary historical and social context, the medical scheme’s content, and its rise and fall and influence. Although faced with “foreign” cultural and language challenges, this pilot medical education had a well-organized curriculum and rigorous requirements for graduation, with apparent influence from Scottish medical education. We explore the multi-faceted perspectives of the interaction between the contemporary Taiwanese society and western medical education.
引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第26期,頁55-114,2018年04月出版