化學物質的拼裝、風險與治理:台灣洗衣精的百滅寧防蟎爭議(2013-2014)

作者資訊
謝新誼
台灣大學社會學系
  透過台灣於 2013 年間爆發的洗衣精添加農藥百滅寧爭議,本研究探討百滅寧成為解決塵蟎過敏風險化學物質的拼裝歷程,分析公民團體、洗衣精廠商及政府單位如何透過公民科學或管制科學實作,界定和治理化學物質的風險。本研究採多重研究方法,資料主要來自參與觀察及歷史檔案。本文發現,百滅寧雖具滅除蟎類的化學特性,其風險卻會隨拼裝脈絡改變,進而產生爭議。防蟎洗衣精爭議起因於公民的科學實作,由上下游新聞與主婦聯盟主動進行議題設定、產出科學證據,並藉自身的經驗知識,界定百滅寧的健康與生態風險,且期許新興科技風險的治理能更為民主。經濟部標準檢驗局作為本爭議之權責單位,其主導的管制科學實作同時涉及國家標準法規、公民科學成果、以及廠商資訊揭露程度的影響。防蟎洗衣精的案例反映出化學物質的治理與化學物質重組拼裝速度間的落差,也彰顯出台灣化學物質分立治理的特性及問題。
 
The Controversy over Permethrin in Taiwan: Risk Governance of Anti-Dust Mite Laundry detergent in 2013-2014
 
  During 2013-2014, debate concerning the risks of the chemical substance Permethrin focused on its changing patterns from widely used insecticide to anti-dust mite laundry detergent in Taiwan. This article investigates the changing patterns of Permethrin and examines how environmental activists, chemical manufacturers, and government officials have governed the risks of anti-dust mite laundry detergent through different scientific activities. Data collected from archives and participant observation. I argue that the anti-dust mite laundry detergent has unintentionally endangered the ecological environment, human health, and regulatory policy. The multiple risks of Permethrin, raised by environmental advocates’ civic scientific practice, were reconfigured in chemicals’ shifting contexts of use from insecticide to laundry detergent. This controversy reveals that the regulatory governance of chemical substances in Taiwan is segregated into various governmental agencies and highly dependent on the self-discipline of manufacturers. This study states that, in order to response public concerns about chemical risks, regulatory science has been deeply involved in governing the new risks of anti-dust mite laundry detergent by a specific governmental agency of economic administration. However, this decentralized governance framework impeded the progress in regulating both the commercial practices and the risks of the highly changing assemblage of chemical substances.
引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第23期,頁137-202,2016年10月出版