見微知著:從具體個案看《科學革命的結構》與「世界改變」之影響

作者資訊
陳思廷
Szu-Ting Chen
國立清華大學哲學研究所

中文摘要

      藉由伊恩.哈金近年來所揭示的「真理」與「敘說真理」之區分與尼可拉斯.賈汀所提出的「探究的場景」之概念的幫助,並佐之以一項經濟學案例的探討,本文試圖將孔恩極具爭議性的「世界改變」之科學哲學立場,重新詮釋為「在概念上保留其客觀性,但在實踐上却具有相對性」的較折衷式的實在論立場。再者,藉由這項折衷式的實在論之觀點,本文進一步對自身有關孔恩科哲立場的新闡釋進行後設反析後發現:如果將這項新闡釋視為屢受前代諸多概念影響下的一項當代詮釋,則這項詮釋本身,實際上,也無法自外於孔恩《結構》一書所揭示的「歷史轉向」的影響之外。因為,不論是本文自身的論述或哈金與賈汀等的其他科學哲學家與科學史學家之論述,事實上都可被視為是《結構》一書出版後所引起的研究焦點之變遷先是聚焦於「科學哲學」的研究,而後轉往「科史哲」的探究,以至再轉向「科技與社會研究」之探討影響下的數項具體而微的變遷案例。

A Tiny Clue Reveals a General Trend: Examining the Influence of The Structure of Scientific Revolution and “World Change” via a Concrete Case Study

Abstract

     By using Ian Hacking’s distinction between “truth” and “truthfulness” and Nicholas Jardine’s idea of “scene of inquiry,” coupled with a case study in economics, this paper tries to reinterpret Kuhn’s controversial philosophical notion of “world change” as a middle-way realist position by maintaining that Kuhn’s position is conceptually objective but is relative in practice. The paper presents a meta-analysis of its own reinterpretation of Kuhn’s position and discovers that if we regard this reinterpretation as one that is strongly influenced by the ideas of previous generations of scholars, then this interpretation itself cannot escape the influence of historical turn that is revealed in Kuhn’s magnum opus (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions). Whether one refers to the discourse in the paper or to the arguments proposed by other philosophers and historians of science such as Hacking or Jardine, one can regard them all as indicating a series of changes in the focus of research—changes triggered by the influence of Kuhn’s book: initially focus on research in the philosophy of science, and then turn to explore the history and philosophy of science, and finally shift to research in the field of science, technology, and society.

引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第18期,頁153-196,2014年4月出版