在醫療與社會模式之外: 盲人棒球技藝形成的行動者網絡分析

作者資訊
曾柏嘉 Po-Chia Tseng
成功大學護理學系研究助理、台灣愛之希望協會專員

中文摘要 

    盲棒技藝如何可能?由STS取徑探討盲棒技藝能指出什麼不同於既有障礙研究的理論意涵?既有的障礙研究以生物醫療模式與社會模式作為界定障礙的兩種主要模式,但這兩種觀點反映了「生物/社會」的二元論框架。從視障者轉變為盲棒球員的過程,本文認為以盲棒技藝為分析焦點有其經驗上與理論上的重要性。本文提出「異質中介模式」,試圖與前述兩種模式進行對話:當障礙的狀態透過各種實作而轉換、連結為能體現新技藝與行動能力的異質網絡,有助於凸顯著眼於障礙的生物性本體和社會性本體的僵固與不足。

      本文藉由廣義對稱性方法研究盲棒技藝的形成,企圖指出行動能力與障礙二者在本體論意義上的共構。本文對「聽力網絡」與「定位能力網絡」萌生的分析,指出盲棒技藝的形成,是透過各種實作使異質行動者相互結盟、形成一致目標的異質網絡化過程。由此,障礙並非本質性或不可轉變的存在,而是如同技藝與行動能力,皆於特定異質網絡中轉換與構成。這對於障礙研究的二元框架有其貢獻。

Beyond Biomedical and Social Models: An Actor-Network Analysis of the Construction of Beep-Ball Players’ Techniques

Abstract

    How can beep-ball playing techniques be realized? What are the theoretical implications STS can offer to disability studies in studying beep-ball playing techniques? Among the disability studies, biomedical model and social model imply the “either biological or social” dualism on how should disability be defined, however, biological and social ontology of disability do not work well in understanding the transformation of becoming a beep-ball player. This article explores the process of turning a vision impaired person into a beep-ball player in order to propose an alternative “heterogeneous mediation model”. 

    When studying the construction of beep-ball playing technique, this article applies the general symmetry method to examine the ontological co-constitution of disability and agency. The analysis on the emergence of hearing and locating networks suggests that the construction of the techniques is achieved in the practices of rearranging heterogeneous actants into a single ally. Accordingly it is argued that disability is neither inherently natural nor inherently social. The case of turning the impairment into specific techniques and agency indicates an alternative theoretical approach to the dualistic disability studies.

引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第17期,頁187-232,2013年10月出版