當核能系統轉化為科技政體:冷戰下的國際政治與核能發展

作者資訊
張國暉
Kuo-Hui Chang

中文摘要

      本文透過科學史、科技史、科學與技術研究(science and technology studies)的發展趨勢評述近年來科技史對研究冷戰(Cold War)的一個新概念:科技政治(technopolitics),並藉此對東亞的核能發展進行初步分析。基本上,透過科技的權力展現即是科技政治,指涉一種利用科技的設計或使用,進而建構、執行及具體化某些政治目的的策略性操作。亦即,特定政治目標的達成必須實質性地仰賴這些物質性及人造性的產物。科技政治承襲及進一步發展了若干科技史重要概念,但在概念層次上與技術的社會建構論卻出現若干扞格,並恐欠缺技術內生政治性的考量。不過,科技政治當中關於「文化及政治脈絡」上的洞見,應可做為一個檢視福島核災的重要途徑。雖然目前東亞各國社會已因福島核災而對核能發展有更進一步的檢討,但除了技術性議題外,仍恐難帶給東亞各國政府與人民在文化及政治脈絡上的根本改變,亦即東亞各國的科學發展早已不只是手段,更是深化為國家目的。本文建議東亞的核能發展可跳脫東亞各國國內的架構,而從跨國角度檢討,進而發展更具歷史縱深及區域整合的觀點,並可藉科技政治的看法,檢視國際政經及歷史文化結構下的東亞核能「科技」及「科技家」是可能如何地扮演政治行動者

How a Technopolitical Regime Evolved from the Pursuit of Nuclear Power: the International Politics and Nuclear Development during the Cold War 

Abstract

      This article reviews a new historical concept of technopolitics during the Cold War, by which it aims to offer a technopolitical perspective on the nuclear development in East Asia after the Fukushima disaster. In addition to introduce Gabriel Hecht’s research of nuclear technopolitics in France, the first part of this article analyzes the concept of technopolitics with some recent accounts from history of international relations, history of science and technology, and science and technology studies. Hecht’s concept shared a contextualist approach with some critical accounts such as the idea of large technological system in history of technology, but her arguments suggest paying more attention on exploring the cultural and political contexts embedded within technology. Accordingly, the idea of technopolitics shows some dissatisfaction with those explanations about the Cold War history of technology offered by the theories of social construction/shaping of technology and history of international relations. In the second part, this article applies the heuristic concept of technopolitics to explore the development of nuclear power in East Asia. It argues the Fukushima disaster might bring limited impacts on projects for nuclear power and/or weapons in countries such as China, South Korea, North Korea, Japan and Taiwan. In addition to the technological momentum of large nuclear systems that keeps pushing these countries to pursue their nuclear projects, their intensive international relations in terms of hostile military and economic competition to each other leave them little room to make a difference. However, the Fukushima disaster has generated some discussions in societies such as in Taiwan to rethink if they should build their national visions on projects of nuclear development.  

引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第16期,頁103-160,2013年04月出版