優性與優孕:優生運動與中國現代生育健康,1950-2000

作者資訊
鐘月岑 副教授
國立清華大學歷史研究所

中文摘要

本文探討中國優生的論述何以從1980年代非常負面的優生手段,例如對智障者施以強制結紮或者對農村婦女施以強制墮胎的案件中,過渡成1990年代後期強調「性愉悅」、「性高潮」的社會物質條件。本文分析三個歷史社會條件,第一,中國改革開放以來性技術的商品化和市場置入行銷策略,以及學術界的討論研究透過媒體的導引重構了城市男女的性知識;第二,一胎政策提倡優生優育的壓力下,不僅導致城鄉醫藥保險和醫藥服務設施不均等的窘境,也使得城市父母產生出無所不用其極的濫用科技、以求完美小孩的心理壓力;第三,生育健康也是中國婦女運動努力的目標和中國共產黨政權的合理化基礎,從1950年全民動員戮力從事城鄉婦女生育健康,到1990的生育健康的平權目標促成了優生法案的推行,使得城市婦女在國家的意識形態的共識下,擁有了法律保障、新進技術的便利和經濟力量的優勢,「性愉悅」是象徵四、五十年來全民動員生育健康運動的累積成就。

Abstract:In the 1990s, no historical connections were made between Chinese eugenics and the horrors of Nazism and the Holocaust. Yet the recent developments in Chinese eugenics of linking enhanced sexual performance and fertility treatment are intriguing in comparison with cases of compulsory sterilization of people with cognitive disabilities and forced abortion for rural women often reported in the international media in the 1980s. What constitutes such a diametrical shift from a negative approach to a rather benign presentation of eugenics in the 1990s? Three historical and social conditions have constituted such discursive shift. First, the commodification of sexual technology and media exposure of scholarly findings of the sexual behaviors of adults in China have been instrumental in reconstructing urban sexuality since the reform era. Second, the unintended consequences of promoting superior birth implicated in China’s “One-child Policy” have generated a social cleavage of healthcare accessibility between the urban and rural population, and a paranoia to terminate unwanted pregnancies among urban married couples and their desperate pursuit of possible technological aids. Third, sexual pleasure signifies an accumulative success of four decades of mass mobilization by the communist party for reproductive health since the 1950s.

引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第14期,2012年4月出版