心理的「下層工作」:《西風》與1930-1940年代大眾心理衛生論述

作者資訊
王文基
國立陽明大學科技與社會研究所副教授兼所長

摘要

  民國成立後,中國由制度變革走向思想啟蒙,新文化運動到五四運動的成果即為著例。但欲探究思想改造深入廣大社會的過程,必須實際考察知識分子如何投身於社會活動,及大眾之回應。本文藉由1930至1940年代主要於上海發行並擁有廣大讀者群的《西風》月刊及副刊,探究科學心理學在中國發揮影響的管道。《西風》藉由開闢讀者信箱、徵文、論壇及各種介紹西方心理學知識的單元,在與讀者雙向交流的場域中,試圖將舊社會的傳統論述從讀者心中剔除,建立以西方科學為基礎的為人處世之道。《西風》欲使讀者共同習得一套新的認識及管理自我的技術,而這套新心理學論述,經由反覆練習與複製,也漸次滲透若干中國青年的心理結構中。然而在諸多限制下,此項心理改造事業的實際成效,恐怕尚需斟酌。在清末以降各種國民改造運動的推廣下,新青年以頗為多元的方式面對這源自西方的自我改造工程。例如,大部分讀者最關切者,除接受科學新知外,乃是透過《西風》抒發對傳統家庭不滿,對社會進行批判,或從編輯處獲得立即且務實之建言,而非在心理衛生的知識基礎上發展出一套自我技術。本文就《西風》月刊所欲從事之心理層次的改造工作,其心理衛生論述所預設之社會觀,乃至於讀者閱讀經驗的多樣性等相關議題,進行分析。

Abastract

There has been little historical research into the history of mental hygiene in Republican China. Using popular magazines West Wind Monthly and West Wind Supplement, this article sets out to rectify this omission. With articles and columns especially designed to further the cause of mental hygiene movement in China, West Wind introduced a ‘modern’ and ‘scientific’ body of knowledge and technologies of self-cultivation. Their messages did reach some Chinese youths and altered their ways of understanding and managing themselves. Nevertheless, as resources were scarce in terms of personnel and social support, and as the Chinese society was constantly in turmoil, the real impact of this popular mental hygiene discourse remains to be determined. In many cases, the niceties of the characteristically psychological technologies of the self the two magazines worked hard to convey very often did not pass through, as their young readers were more interested in using West Wind as a platform for voicing collective distress and social critique, and for finding practical help in solving personal and interpersonal problems. It is concluded that the present study not only demonstrates the diversity of nation formation movements, of which the mental hygiene movement was a part, during the Republican era, but helps learn more about the transit of knowledge in a different cultural context.

 



 

引用: 
《科技、醫療與社會》,第13期,2011年10月出版